Escape Velocity

All loudspeakers function based on Newtons law, force equal mass times acceleration. To accelerate the mass of the loudspeaker cone a force is needed. This force is generated by the current in the voice coil. Therefore, any limits or reductions of current will compromise the sound quality of your loudspeaker.

Output power transistors become more and more non-linear as they deliver high currents. Because of this FLUO™ use output power transistors which can deliver up to 388 Amperes of peak current. The unique Fast Linear Ultimate Operation circuit design only needs 38 Ampere maximum; this will easily drive a difficult 2 Ohm loudspeaker. So, a FLUO design only uses up to 10% of the maximum current! This astonishing figure allows the output power transistor function from 0 to 10% where it is much more linear!

In addition, the FLUO™ output power transistor can also go down to 0.022 Ohm as an internal resistance. So about 100 times lower than any difficult loudspeaker load. FLUO™ also takes care to use low resistance 2.5 sqmm internal wiring cable in the power supply to avoid using long thin tracks on the PCB design by sending the current away from the PCB in low resistance wires and back to the PCB and again to the output relays. After the output relay, the current is again sent by low resistance wires, thus avoiding compromising PCB tracks. Even a 105 um PCB track thickness is only 0.105 mm, such a PCB track would need to be about 25 mm wide to match or achieve the same results.

The high specification considered internal wiring does result in greater amplifier assembly time, as more time is required for the hand assembly work, but the improved performance far outweighs this no compromise approach.

A Single Die metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor is used to deliver musical accuracy across the entire music frequency range as low as 16 Hz to beyond 20’000 Hz outside the scope of a human hearing range. However, 200’000 Hz and 201’000 Hz signals are removed to prevent distortions in the audible music range, these can cause a 1’000 Hz tone which compromise audio accuracy.

The FLUO™ high quality power supply capacitors also have a very low internal resistance, even at 100 kHz. Other brands do not specify their capacitor resistance at 100 kHz. Each part of a FLUO™ product has been carefully considered, purposefully specified to delivery high performance audio. These expensive parts deliver astonishing musical accuracy and realism.


FLUO™ stands for Fast Linear Ultimate Operation. Fast linear ultimate operation has two objectives, firstly to keep the output of the amplifier correct no matter what level and frequency it receives. Secondly the output is a constant linear factor of the input, thus the two are always in harmony.

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FLUO™ is the ultimate balance of technical precision and sound realisation, where there is no need for anything that isn’t already there. In this context less is absolute.

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FLUO™ is the pursue of accuracy, integrity and honesty to faithfully reproduce any musical event. Thus the design and material usage of the products are carefully considered and purposeful.

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